The IVI is an unparalleled convergence of academic leaders and scientific experts.

The Innovation and Value Initiative (IVI) is led by renowned thought leaders from academia, with forward-thinking practitioners from the payer community, pharmaceutical companies, integrated delivery systems, the healthcare provider community, and patient advocates. This group includes experts that have pioneered new methods for measuring and rewarding value in healthcare. They have been recognized by their peers as leaders in their fields and published in the industry’s most reputable journals. 

The IVI was conceived to enhance value across the healthcare system, for all stakeholders. To achieve this estimable goal, we are leading through three distinct channels:

  • The Executive Director and Executive Team lead the execution and communication of IVI research
  • The multi-stakeholder Panel of Health Advisors advises and steers the IVI research agenda
  • The Scientific Advisory Group incubates new ideas, and ensures the integrity and quality of all IVI research 

Led by Dr. Darius Lakdawalla, the IVI Executive Team is comprised of a diverse group of accomplished healthcare specialists with expertise in health economics, public policy, scientific research and business. This team is responsible for leadership and execution of research conduct and communication.

Darius Lakdawalla

Executive Director


Dr. Lakdawalla is the Chief Scientific Officer at Precision Health Economics and the Quintiles Chair in Pharmaceutical and Regulatory Innovation at the University of Southern California School of Pharmacy and Price School of Public Policy. He is the winner of numerous awards in health economics, including the Garfield Prize and the Milken Institute Distinguished Research Award. Dr. Lakdawalla is also a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research, Visiting Scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, and Associate Editor at the Review of Economics and Statistics and the American Journal of Health Economics, and an Editorial Board member at the Journal of Health Economics.

Jason Shafrin

Director of Research


Dr. Shafrin is a Senior Research Economist and the Director of Healthcare Quality and Value-Based Research Methods at Precision Health Economics. He is an expert in value-based purchasing, Medicare reimbursement systems, and advanced econometric analyses using claims data. Dr. Shafrin has extensive experience in estimating the value of new technologies—including traditional and digital medicines—across a variety of disease areas. For instance, Dr. Shafrin has conducted several analyses comparing patient and provider valuations of innovative treatments. He is an expert in the evolving field of value frameworks.

Mark Linthicum

Director of Scientific Communications


Mr. Linthicum is a Senior Research Scientist and Director of Scientific Communications at Precision Health Economics. At PHE, Mr. Linthicum leads the coordination of multiple research portfolios and specializes in translating scientific content for multiple audiences. Mr. Linthicum has over 10 years of experience in health policy and public health, with experience in policy-facing research in diverse therapeutic areas, including oncology, hepatology, infectious disease, and nutrition.

Carolyn Hillegass

Director of Development


Ms. Hillegass is Vice President, Business Development for Precision Health Economics, working closely with clients and key stakeholders on each research engagement. She harnesses over 25 years of global sales and marketing experience and strong knowledge across therapeutic areas, policy and public health issues. Ms. Hillegass has held senior level positions within medical imaging, pharmaceutical and life sciences organizations. She was instrumental in growing the Optum Life Sciences businesses, launching new medicines for Sanofi, and introducing FujiFilm’s digital imaging systems to the U.S. hospital market.

Suepattra May-Slater

Associate Director of Patient Engagement



Dr May-Slater is a Senior Research Anthropologist at Precision Health Economics with over 10 years of experience in health services research. She received her PhD in medical anthropology from the University of California, Berkeley and San Francisco, and her MPH from the University of Washington. She has extensive experience working across multiple chronic and infectious disease areas investigating how patients experience illness and healthcare. Dr. May-Slater brings rigorous training in ethnographic research methods including focus group design, in-depth interviewing, and qualitative data analyses.


Composed of experienced leaders from across the healthcare system, the Panel of Health Advisors sets IVI research priorities, steers the research agenda in collaboration with scientific leadership, and provides guidance on ongoing research efforts. The Panel includes representatives from across the healthcare world academia, patient advocates, payers, providers, the life sciences industry. Their role is to provide advice and ensure the credibility and rigor in the research and policy products, and to ensure all parties have a voice in IVI activities.

Samuel Nussbaum

Chair of the Panel of Health Advisors


Dr. Nussbaum is currently a Senior Fellow at the Schaeffer Center for Health Policy and Economics at the University of Southern California. Prior to that, Dr. Nussbaum was the executive vice president and chief medical officer of Anthem. During a 15-year tenure, he oversaw medical and pharmacy policy, health improvement, care management, provider contracting, innovative payment models, and outcomes research and drug safety through HealthCore, an Anthem subsidiary. Dr. Nussbaum had a 20-year career as a professor at Harvard Medical School and led a basic and clinical research program at Massachusetts General Hospital where he directed the endocrine group practice. Dr. Nussbaum serves on the boards of the National Quality Forum, the OASIS Institute, and BioCrossroads and previously served as President of the Disease Management Association of America, Chairman of the National Committee for Quality Health Care, Chair of America’s Health Insurance Plan’s Chief Medical Officer Leadership Council, and on the Secretary of Health and Human Services Advisory Committee on Genetics, Health, and Society. Dr. Nussbaum has twice been recognized by Modern Healthcare as one of the “50 Most Influential Physician Executives in Healthcare.”

Marc Boutin


Marc Boutin, JD, is the Chief Executive Officer of the National Health Council (NHC), the only organization that brings together all segments of the health community to provide a united voice for the more than 133 million people with chronic diseases and disabilities and their family caregivers.

Marc Boutin has been a leading voice for greater patient involvement at every stage of the continuum, starting with the development of new drugs, to regulatory oversight of health care delivery, to shared decision-making at the point of care. Under his leadership, the NHC has convened a broad range of stakeholders to create and effectively implement pragmatic strategies and public policy that address diverse issues, such as enhancing patient engagement, advancing the development of new treatments, and developing a better health delivery system to meet the needs of people with chronic conditions.

John Bulger


John Bulger, DO, MBA, is the Chief Medical Officer for Geisinger Health Plan, Geisinger Indemnity Insurance Company, and Geisinger Quality Options, Incorporated. Dr. Bulger also serves as the Chief Medical Officer for Population Health at Geisinger Health System. In this key role, he works with Geisinger Health System and community providers to improve the quality of medical care for patients and members. Prior to joining Geisinger Health Plan, Dr. Bulger was the Chief Quality Officer at Geisinger Health System. He currently serves on various regional and national groups with the continued focus of striving to improve the quality of medical care. Dr. Bulger also chairs the Society of Hospital Medicine’s committee on healthcare quality and patient safety.

Randy Burkholder


Randy Burkholder is the Vice President of Policy and Research at the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA). Mr. Burkholder leads PhRMA work on policy solutions for supporting continued biopharmaceutical innovation and high-quality, patient-centered health care, including pavement and delivery reform, quality measurement, appropriate use and patient adherence, evidence-based medicine and health technology assessment, value of innovation and personalized medicine. Mr. Burkholder represents PhRMA at federal agencies and advisory bodies including the Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee, CMS’ Technical Expert Panel on oncology, and the Federal Coordinating Council for Comparative Effectiveness Research. He is also a former member of the Board of Directors of the Personalized Medicine Coalition and serves on the Steering Committee of the Partnership to Improve Patient Care and the advisory committee for the Turning the Tide Against Cancer Initiative.

Mr. Burkholder has over 20 years of experience in health care policy, advocacy and communications in the medical technology and pharmaceutical industries. Prior to joining PhRMA, Mr. Burkholder was Associate Vice President for Public Affairs at AdvaMed, the leading association of the medical device and diagnostic industries.

Robert Dubois


Robert W. Dubois, MD, PhD, is the Chief Science Officer and Executive Vice President of the National Pharmaceutical Council (NPC). In this role at NPC, he oversees the company’s research on policy issues as they relate to the role of real-world evidence in decision making, how to determine the value of health care services, the relationship between access and health outcomes, and the approaches to maintain an environment that supports health innovation. Dr. Dubois brings over 25 years of experience in health care research, with a key focus on understanding and ensuring that patients receive high value health care. Dr. Dubois is also a member of the Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee, Advisory Board of the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review, the Associate Editor of the Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research and on the editorial board for Health Affairs and The American Journal of Managed Care. He has published more than 150 peer-reviewed articles.

Sachin Kamal-Bahl


Sachin Kamal-Bahl, PhD, is Vice President and Head of the Global Health and Value Innovation Center at Pfizer, a newly created center under his leadership, that develops and integrates innovative approaches based on well-considered risks and strong technical underpinnings to address the access, pricing, or valuation challenges and opportunities facing the pharmaceutical industry.  Under Sachin’s leadership and vision, the Center has been accelerating the pipeline of approaches to solve for the environmental challenges – examples of which range from leveraging joint EMA/HTA advice pathways, EMA adaptive licensing approaches, and systematic patient engagement in order to optimize drug development planning and access at launch to identifying innovative pricing and financing solutions for new drugs including those for curative treatments such as gene therapies in order to address payer concerns about prices and budget impact. Prior to coming to Pfizer in 2014, Sachin held various leadership positions in market access, pricing, and health economics and outcomes research at Merck & Co. In addition to leading the Innovation Center, Sachin holds adjunct appointments at two academic institutions, the University of Pennsylvania’s Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics and the University of Maryland’s School of Pharmacy; serves on advisory boards of initiatives led by professional societies/organizations; and is a frequently invited speaker at external conferences.


Michael Millenson


Michael L. Millenson, president of Health Quality Advisors LLC, is a nationally recognized expert on making care better, safer and more patient-centered. He is the author of the critically acclaimed book, Demanding Medical Excellence: Doctors and Accountability in the Information Age, and is an adjunct associate professor of medicine at Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine. He has testified before Congress and the Federal Trade Commission and written for publications ranging from The Washington Post to Health Affairs to the BMJ. He is a former board member of the Society for Participatory Medicine and serves on the editorial board of the American Journal of Medical Quality. Earlier in his career, as a healthcare reporter for the Chicago Tribune, he was nominated three times for a Pulitzer Prize.

Joshua Ofman


Joshua Ofman, MD, MSHS, is currently the Senior Vice President of Global Value, Access & Policy at Amgen. He received his advanced medical training in Gastroenterology from UCLA and his Health Services Research training from the RAND/UCLA/VA program. He formally was a member of the academic faculty in the Department of Medicine, UCLA School of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. Dr. Ofman also served as the Senior Vice President of Zynx Health Inc., a consulting company focused on evidence-based clinical information for quality improvement, and reimbursement and health economics strategy for life sciences companies.

 Dr. Ofman currently represents Amgen on the Board of Directors of California Life Sciences Association (CLSA) and National Pharmaceutical Council (NPC).

Tomas Philipson


Tomas Philipson, PhD, is the Daniel Levin Chair in Public Policy at the University of Chicago and also a faculty member of the Department of Economics. Dr. Philipson was one of the co-founders of Precision Health Economics. He also recently served in the U.S. Government as Senior Economic Advisor to the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Senior Economic Advisor to the Administrator of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. He has twice received the highest honor in his field: the Arrow Award of the International Health Economics Association.

Michael Ryan


Michael L. Ryan, PharmD, is the Senior Vice President for U.S. Value, Access and Policy for Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS). In this role, Dr. Ryan is responsible for all pricing, contracting, payer strategy, value and access marketing, and policy across the $8B U.S. BMS portfolio, as well as all field reimbursement strategy and execution across all U.S. payers.

Prior to joining Bristol-Myers Squibb, Dr. Ryan spent 16 years at Amgen as the Vice President and General Manager for U.S. Reimbursement, Value and Access, where he was responsible for all pricing, contracting, government price reporting, payer strategy and value and access marketing across the $13B U.S. Amgen portfolio. He also served as the Vice President and General Manager of the Nephrology Business Unit for Amgen, where he was responsible for the P&L and life cycle management of Amgen’s three products used to treat patients with kidney disease; Epogen®, Aranesp®, and Sensipar®.

During his career, Dr. Ryan has been invited to present over 100 national platform presentations, and has over 30 refereed journal and textbook publications. The primary focus of Dr. Ryan’s research is pharmacoeconomics, pharmacoinformatics, healthcare policy, drug use and disease state management, and the application of Total Quality Management principals to a healthcare environment.

Laurel Todd


Laurel L. Todd, MBA is Vice President, Healthcare Policy and Research at the Biotechnology Innovation Organization (BIO), where she directs the association’s policy efforts related to Medicare, Medicaid, health reform and economic trends and policies impacting BIO member companies. Prior to joining BIO, Laurel was with HillCo Partners, LLC, (now known as ADVI) a public policy consulting firm, where she advised pharmaceutical, biotechnology, medical device, and other medical technology and physician groups on Medicare coding, coverage and reimbursement issues. She has also previously served as Special Assistant to the Deputy Administrator and as Deputy Capital Markets Advisor for the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS).

Neil Weissman


Neil Weissman, MD, is the President of MedStar Health Research Institute, the research organization providing scientific, regulatory and administrative support for research programs across the MedStar Health system. He is a professor of medicine at Georgetown University School of Medicine and directs the Cardiovascular Core Laboratories. Dr. Weissman has been recognized internationally as an expert in the use of cardiac ultrasound in multicenter trials. He is often invited to serve as an expert on panels and commissions for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the National Institutes of Health with over 200 peer-reviewed publications. Dr. Weissman has held multiple leadership positions throughout his professional career, including President of the American Society of Echocardiography and Governor of the American College of Cardiology.

Dana Gelb Safran


Dana Gelb Safran is Chief Performance Measurement and Improvement Officer and Senior Vice President, Enterprise Analytics at Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts. In this role, she leads the company’s initiatives to measure and improve healthcare quality, safety and outcomes. Dr. Safran was among the lead developers of the BCBSMA Alternative Quality Contract (AQC), a provider contract model nationally recognized for pioneering payment reform and demonstrating significantly improved quality and cost.   Dr. Safran retains an active academic practice, as a faculty member in the Department of Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, and has authored more than 80 peer-reviewed articles.

Michael Sherman


Dr. Michael Sherman serves as chief medical officer and senior vice president for Harvard Pilgrim Health Care.   Dr. Sherman is responsible for Harvard Pilgrim’s medical trend management, provider engagement strategy, medical informatics, wellness and health promotion initiatives, care and disease management services, pharmacy services, NCQA accreditation and quality and utilization management programs and has been a leader in driving adoption of outcomes-based provider and pharmaceutical contracts.   He also serves on the faculty of Harvard Medical School’s Department of Population Medicine, as chair of the Board of Managers of the Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute and on the Advisory Board of the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review (ICER).  Dr. Sherman also is the current chair for AHIP’s CMO Leadership Council, comprised of chief medical officers from health plans throughout the United States.

Susan Shiff


Dr. Shiff joined Merck in 2014 as Senior Vice President and head of the CORE organization. CORE links together epidemiologists, health economists, access and reimbursement scientists, health services researchers and others involved in health policy research with the goal of leading global strategic value evidence generation and access strategy development to optimize reimbursement and patient outcomes across Merck’s portfolio. Prior to joining Merck, Dr. Shiff was the Global Vice President, Health Economics Research and Evidence Based Medicine at Teva, Inc. Prior to Teva, she spent seven years at Pfizer, including several years as Vice President in the areas of outcomes research, epidemiology, health economics, and access and pricing. She has also led the global risk management group and U.S. HEOR group at Roche and spent four years at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In 2016, FiercePharma named Dr. Shiff one of the top 15 women in Biopharma. Susan received her Ph.D. from UCLA, and an MBA from Cornell University.

IVI research is conceived of and guided by its Scientific Advisory Group. Members of the Scientific Advisory Group include experts that have pioneered new methods for measuring and rewarding value in healthcare. Recognized as leaders in their fields, IVI’s Scientific Advisors generate research ideas, spearhead development of innovative methods, and provide internal peer-review system to ensure that study protocols and IVI publications meet the highest quality standards.  

Wade Aubry

Medical Technology Expert


Dr. Aubry is an Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine at the Philip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies at UCSF. He is also Associate Director of the Center for Medical Technology Policy, a nonprofit organization which identifies evidence gaps on important medical technologies and facilitates real-world studies to provide needed information to various decision makers in the private and public sectors. Dr. Aubry is a former medical director for Blue Shield of California, the Blue Cross Blue Shield Association, and Medicare. He is currently a senior medical advisor to the Blue Shield of California Foundation’s California Technology Assessment Forum.

James Baumgardner

Legislative Policy Expert


Dr. Baumgardner is a Senior Research Economist at Precision Health Economics and an expert in health economics and policy. Prior to joining PHE, Dr. Baumgardner was the deputy assistant director at Congressional Budget Office (CBO), serving at CBO for more than 20 years. At CBO, Dr. Baumgardner focused on legislative initiatives affecting Medicare, the regulation of employment-based and individually purchased health plans, graduate medical education, the costs of insurance coverage, health improvements in the population, pharmaceutical markets and regulation, and Medicare’s prescription drug program. Prior to his time at CBO, Dr. Baumgardner was a professor of economics at Duke University.

Amitabh Chandra

Health Policy Expert


Dr. Chandra is the Malcolm Weiner Professor of Public Policy and Director of Health Policy Research at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government. Dr. Chandra was awarded the ASHE medal in 2012 given biennially to the economist age 40 or under who has made the most significant contributions to health economics.  He is also a Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School, member of the Congressional Budget Office Panel of Health Advisors, and a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research.  He is an elected member of the National Academy of Medicine.

Jeroen Jansen

Evidence Synthesis Expert


Dr. Jansen is Chief Scientist for Evidence Synthesis and Decision Modeling at Precision Health Economics, and was a Founding Partner of Redwood Outcomes, now part of PHE. Dr. Jansen has 15 years of experience with meta-analysis, network meta-analysis, cost-effectiveness modeling, and health technology assessment submissions. He is trained as an epidemiologist and has an adjunct appointment at Tufts University School of Medicine in Boston. Dr. Jansen helped lead the development of network meta-analysis methods and guidelines. He has published many papers related to epidemiology, evidence synthesis, and economic evaluations, and was an associate editor of the Research Synthesis Methods journal.

Anupam Bapu Jena

Provider Policy Expert


Dr. Jena is an Associate Professor of Health Care Policy and Medicine at Harvard Medical School, as well as an Attending Physician at Massachusetts General Hospital, where he practices general inpatient medicine and teaches medical residents. He is one of a handful of professors holding both a PhD in economics and an MD. Dr. Jena’s research involves several areas of health economics and policy including the economics of physician behavior and the physician workforce; medical malpractice; the economics of health care productivity; and the economics of medical innovation. His work has been published in leading journals of economics, medicine, and health policy and has been featured in prominent news outlets such as The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal.

Ross Maclean

Life Sciences Policy Expert


Dr. Maclean is the Chief Operating Officer of Precision Health Economics. He has more than 20 years of experience in health services and outcomes research, health economics, health system design, health policy, and market access. With over a decade spent in the biopharmaceutical industry, he gained wide exposure to the R&D environment as a leader of the global health economics and outcomes research function for cardiovascular, metabolics and immunology products. At Bristol-Myers Squibb, Dr. Maclean held the positions of VP, US HEOR; VP, Cardiovascular; and VP, Diabetes Medical.  

Peter Neumann

Cost-Effectiveness and Value Assessment Expert


Dr. Neumann is the Director of the Center for the Evaluation of Value and Risk in Health (CEVR) at Tufts Medical Center. His research focuses on the use of cost-effectiveness analysis in health care decision-making, including The Food and Drug Administration's regulation of health economic information, and the role of clinical and economic evidence in informing public and private sector healthcare decisions.  He is a past president of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) and has authored more than 200 papers in the medical literature. Dr. Neumann is also the co-chair of the 2nd Panel on Cost-Effectiveness that is developing updated guidelines for how cost-effectiveness should be conducted.